Enketo webform issue: Uploaded images not displaying from self-hosted ODK Central (physical server)

1. What is the issue? Please be detailed.
We recently deployed our own instance of ODK Central on a physical server. However, we are facing an issue where the images we upload do not display in the Enketo webform. Strangely, the images show up perfectly fine in ODK Collect. We also tested the same setup using a cloud server, and it worked perfectly there as well.

2. What steps can we take to reproduce this issue?
As previously mentioned, this issue is specific to physical servers exclusively.

3. What have you tried to fix the issue?
We carefully conduct multiple step-by-step installations, leaving no room for oversight, in order to ensure a comprehensive installation process that is free from any missed steps or overlooked components

4. Upload any forms or screenshots you can share publicly below.

Are you using the same versions of Central? Are the SSL_TYPE's in the .env file the same? My guess is that the physical server is behind a firewall that is preventing Central from fetching that media.

Thanks @yanokwa, see my comments;

==> Central versions are the same though the physical server displays (v2023.2.1) while cloud server displays (v2023.2.1-2-g86c843b). Are these two different versions?

==> The .env files are the same

==> My colleagues (IT) checked and don't see if the firewall is preventing media fetching. They implemented measures to prevent and filter any untrusted traffic.